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Anthelmintic & Anti-worm

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Helminths are worm-like parasites. They are one of the main types of intestinal parasites. Common symptoms of intestinal worms are nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting, fatigue, gas, and unexplained weight loss. An individual having a worm infection may also experience dysentery (when an intestinal infection causes diarrhoea with blood and mucus in the stools). The parasitic worm infection may also cause a rash or itch around the rectum or vulva. Sometimes, patients may pass a worm in their stool during a bowel movement. Some people may have worm infections for years without experiencing any symptoms. Doctors prescribe Antihelmintic drugs to treat certain worm infections considering a patient's health condition. Take Antihelmintic Medicine exactly as suggested by your doctor to get the best from the Medicine.

What are the causes of Infection?

One of the most common causes to get infected with a worm is eating undercooked meat from an infected animal such as a fish, pig, or cow. Other possible causes include consuming contaminated water, poor sanitation, contact with contaminated faeces, or poor hygiene. If you have the symptoms of worm infection, you should make an appointment with a doctor. Your doctor may carry several tests to detect the worm infection and prescribe treatment accordingly.  

What are Antihelminthic & Antiworm Drugs?

Antihelminthics & anti-worms work against worms scientifically called helminths. In humans, the worms stay within the intestine or have complex life cycles that include movement through the body. The infective form may be either an immature one or an adult form. The life cycle is dependent on neuromuscular coordination and energy production. Most anti-worm medicines target one of these areas. These drugs are prescribed according to the type of worm infection an individual suffers. The helminths are divided into three classes, namely cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes. Here is a look at worms along with their scientific category names and the drug of choice for each worm infection:

• Cestodes (flatworms and tapeworms): Praziquantel 

• Nematodes (roundworms): Albendazole or Mebendazole

• Trematodes(flukes): Praziquantel

• Roundworms: Diethylcarbamazine

• Filariasis: Ivermectin

Medicines effective against Cestodes and Trematodes

 Before getting to know more about the medications, here is a quick review of the worms:

Cestodes and tapeworms- They are flat ad segmented. Larvae develop in the small intestine of adults. Therefore, the anti-worm treatment can be confined to the small intestine.

Trematodes: These are the flukes; they move about the body. There are blood flukes, liver flukes, and so on. The treatment is needed in a systematic circulation to affect the fluke. The mode of action of Praziquantel is still not known. It is thought to alter the membrane function of the worm. The drug affects the flukes that cause schistosomiasis (also known as snail fever). Symptoms of schistosomiasis include diarrhoea, abdominal pain, bloody stool, or blood in the urine.  

Medicine effective against Nematodes

 • Nematodes – These are a more diverse set of worms. They are called roundworms because they are elongated and round. This group includes pinworm, hookworm, and whipworm. They are typically transmitted through contact with dirty faces or soil. Once an individual has consumed contaminated substances, the worm travels into your intestine, where it reproduces and grows. After they reproduce and grow larger, symptoms may appear. Most cases of Nematode infection can be treated using Mebendazole.

Mebendazole is the most widely used Medicine for worms because it is used to treat threadworm infections (infections of the gut) that are the most common worm infections.

A special group of Nematodes called Filaria can be considered separately. Patients suffering from Filariasis are treated using other drugs, namely Albendazole, diethylcarbamazine, or Ivermectin.

The timely administration of worm medicine for humans play a significant role in treating the condition.

 How do Medicines work against Worms?

Most medicines developed to treat worm infection kill worms by either starving them or paralysing them. Mebendazole and Albendazole prevent worms from using sugar (glucose) they need to survive. Without glucose, worms lose their energy supply and quickly die.

Praziquantel and Ivermectin act by paralysing the worms in the intestine. This allows them to be easily forced out of the position and removed from the gut in the stools.

What is the duration of Treatment?

In general, the treatment duration is quite short; only a few days and a patient will be symptoms free. Treatment usually depends on what type of worm infection you have, and medicines will be given accordingly. For example, Mebendazole is usually given as a single one-off dose for treating threadworm infection. The dose may be repeated 14 days later. For whipworm or roundworm, Mebendazole is prescribed twice daily for three days.

What are the Side Effects?

Mentioning all the side effects of all anti-worm medicines in a single leaflet may not be possible, so talk to a doctor to get more information specific to your anti-worm drug. In general, medicines from infections are safe and well-tolerated; they rarely cause serious side effects. The side effects most reported with anti-worm drugs are upset stomach, wind, diarrhoea, and nausea. Medication for worms in humans should be the prescription one to avoid unwanted side effects. 

Who cannot use Medicines for Worms?

A few people cannot take medication for worms in humans. Medicine can cause side effects; this is the one reason you cannot take one. It is important to discuss with your doctor before taking any medicine. Mebendazole is approved for use in adults and children over the age of two years. However, anti-worm Medicine must be given to children from six months if required. The use of Mebendazole is prohibited in pregnant and breastfeeding women. If pregnancy treatment is considered important, it is better to give it in the second or third trimester. For more information, consider the doctor’s advice.

You can buy Mebendazole to treat threadworm infection from an online trusted source for adults and children over two years. If you want to treat any other kind of worm infection, discuss it with your doctor before buying a medicine.

General Tips to Improve Health:

 • Intestinal cleansing is the most effective treatment to get all the worms out of the body. Generally, these kinds of cleaning require using a high fiber or roughage diet and supplements like Psyllium husks (Isaphgul), garlic, pumpkin (preferably its seeds), ripe papaya’s extract, activated charcoal and beetroot juices etc.

 • Garlic and ginger have long been very effective in Roundworm infections. Any formulation containing garlic or eating raw garlic pods proves to be a very useful therapy.

 • Another good colon cleansing herb as goldenseal or orangeroot. This herb has been used for worm infestations and to cure infections of the mucous membranes present in various human pathways such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc.

 • Black walnut is another safe and effective remedy.

 • Pumpkin seeds are said to be very good in treating tapeworms and roundworms.

If you visit developing countries, cook food with boiled or purified water before eating, and avoid contact with soil and faeces.

How do anti-anginal drugs work?

Nitrates - They relax smooth muscles in the blood vessels and making it easier for the blood and oxygen to reach the heart.

Beta-blockers - Theyinhibit the contraction of vascular smooth muscles, thus improving blood circulation.

Calcium channel blockers - These drugs lower blood pressure, thus reducing the heart's workload.    

Will anti-worm medication affect fertility?

There is no firm evidence to suggest that taking anti-worm medications will reduce fertility in either men or women. But it is always best to speak to a doctor before taking it if you are trying to get pregnant.  

Will anti-worm drugs make contraceptive methods less effective?

Antiworm medications such as mebendazole don’t stop birth control pills from working, including the combined pill and emergency conception.  

Who is at risk of a worm infection?

The risk of parasitic worm infection is higher in people who live in rural or developing areas. The risk is even greater when food and drinking water are contaminated and sanitation is poor.   

How to prevent an infection?

The best way to avoid a worm infection is not to walk barefoot in areas where the worm is common and where there may be faecal contamination of the soil. Moreover, avoid skin contact with such oil and avoid ingesting it. One can also prevent infection by not defecating outdoors and by effective sewage disposal systems. Also, wash your hands before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet.  

Is there any food or drink to avoid with anti-worm drugs?

A change in your diet may be necessary. Promptly consult your doctor. Avoid grapefruit/grapefruit juice unless the doctor instructs otherwise.

Is it safe to take repeat doses of mebendazole?

Your doctor may suggest you repeat the dose after two weeks to prevent you from getting them again. This is because the anti-worm drug kills the worms but not their eggs.

How long do anti-worm drugs work?

An anti-worm medication does not kill the eggs of the worm. This is why doctors suggest another dose two weeks later to help prevent reinfection. An anti-worm drug should begin to work straight away, but it may take several days to destroy all the worms.

What are the common side effects of anti-worm medications?

The common side effects developed with an anti-worm medication are diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach/abdominal pain, headache, drowsiness, and fever.