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Antibiotics are medicines that act on the infections caused by the bacteria. Though our immune system is well equipped with natural antibiotic elements that protect us from harmful bacteria, sometimes we need to depend on external antibiotics for relief. These medicines sometimes react negatively with our immune system that’s why a proper prescription is a must. If someone over uses or abuses these antibiotics, the bacteria will turn resilient to the effects and the antibiotic will render ineffective. Some of the antibiotics are known for creating side effects if not used in the prescribed doses. The side effects may vary from a minor fungal infection to diarrhea. So, it is extremely important to get a prescription before purchasing antibiotics online. Our site alldaychemist.com offers a wide range of antibiotics for which you can place orders online. Another thing that must be taken care of is; use of antibiotics by pregnant woman, a breastfeeding mother or a person suffering from kidney ailment should be done as directed by physician only.

Antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits the growth of or kills other microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi.

Illnesses such as syphilis, tuberculosis, salmonella, and some forms of meningitis are caused by bacteria and are treated by antibiotics. The earliest account of the usage of microbes against microbes was laid by Fleming. Fleming (1928) described the effect on staphylococci of a substance produced by Penicillium notatum and researched its possible use as a treatment for bacterial infections.

The noun “antibiotic” was first used in 1942 by Dr Selman A. Waksman, a soil microbiologist. Dr Waksman and his colleagues discovered several Actinomycetes derived antibiotics. In the forties to sixties, the term “antibiotic” was different from “chemotherapeutic drug”. Chemotherapeutic drugs were artificial substances used to cure diseases.

“All antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, but not all chemotherapeutic agents are antibiotics.”

    The word antibiotic denotes:

“A chemical substance derived from a microorganism or produced by chemical synthesis that can kill or inhibit microorganisms and cure infections.”

Originally, the earliest records say that antibiotics were derived from fungal sources. These can be referred to as “natural” antibiotics. But these Natural antibiotics are more toxic than synthetic antibiotics.

Examples of natural antibiotics are:

  • Benzylpenicillin
  • Gentamicin

SOURCES OF ANTIBIOTICS:

  • Bacteria (most prolific source is the Streptomycete group)

For example, Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol and Kanamycin etc.

  • Moulds (filamentous fungi) 

For example, Penicillins and Cephalosporins

  • Synthetic  antibiotics

For example Chloramphenicol

  • Semi-synthetic

A microorganism and part of it produce part of the molecule is modified/ altered chemically to improve it.

E.g. many types of Penicillin - Ampicillin, Methicillin, Carbenicillin, Cloxacillin

CLASSIFICATION:

There are several classification schemes for antibiotics:

  • Based on the bacterial spectrum (broad versus narrow)
  • Route of administration (Injectable versus oral versus topical)
  • Type of activity (bactericidal vs bacteriostatic)
  • Chemical structure.

The most important method of classification is based upon chemical structure. Antibiotics of a particular structural class generally show similar patterns of effectiveness, toxicity, and allergic potential.

The classification according to their structure:

  1. Aminoglycosides (Amikacin, Gentamicin, Streptomycin etc.)

     They have a very strong and rapid bactericidal effect on bacteria. Aminoglycosides are not effective against anaerobes. They act upon several sites of the bacterial cell (outer membrane, Ribosomes). Aminoglycosides are preferably used in combination with other antibiotics.

  • Streptomycin is an old drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
  • Gentamicin is a standard and most widely used aminoglycoside.
  • Amikacin and Isepamicin- These antibiotics resist various bacterial destructive enzymes.
  1. Glycopeptides (Vancomycin and Fusfomycin)

They are bactericidal drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis in a step before beta-lactam action. They interfere with RNA synthesis or injure the protoplast. They have a large molecular size and cannot penetrate the cell wall, and are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The drugs are excreted almost exclusively by glomerular filtration.

  • Vancomycin

Used for Staph or Strep infections RESISTANT to Methicillin.

Vancomycin potentiates the nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides.

  • Fosfomycin

Inhibits cell wall synthesis

Treatment of uncomplicated UTI only in females

  1. β-lactam:

They are bactericidal drugs. The bacterial enzymes that are affected by beta-lactam are called penicillin-binding proteins. They inhibit cell wall synthesis.

  • Penicillins-the usage is against the following: Carbapenems(Imipenem)
    • Gram +ve infections
    • Treponema (Syphilis)
    • Pseudomonas (Penicillin IV + Aminoglycosides)
  • Cephalosporins (1st - 4th generation)
  1. Fluoroquinolones (Nalidixic acid):

They are synthetic antibacterial agents and not derived from bacteria. They are chemically unrelated to penicillin or cephalosporin. They get so well absorbed that they are generally as effective by the oral route as by intravenous infusion.

  1. Oxazolidinones (Linezolid)

They bind to 50S and prevent the formation of initiation complex, and prevent cell replication. They are used in people who are allergic to Vancomycin. 

  1. Macrolides(Erythromycin)

They are static antibiotics that reversibly inhibit protein synthesis on the ribosomal level. They are derived from Streptomyces bacteria. Erythromycin, the prototype of this class, is used similar to penicillin. After introducing more modern members into this class of antibiotics, they became very popular because of a low frequency of side effects and comfortable usage.

  • Lincosamides (Clindamycin): it is  effective against
    • gram +ve organisms
    • anaerobes (B.fragilis)
  1. Miscellaneous (Metronidazole, Tetracyclin)
  • Tetracyclin: They are derived from a species of Streptomyces bacteria. They are bacteriostatic and used against a large variety of microorganisms, including Rickettsia and amebic parasites.

 

WHAT IS A PERFECT ANTIBIOTIC?

 A perfect antibiotic should have the following features:

  • Non-toxic
  • Non-allergenic
  • Selective target
  • Broad-spectrum of activity
  • No development of resistance to it by bacteria
  • Stable
  • Cheap
  • Long shelf life
  • High therapeutic index
  • Variable excretion rate from the body (high rate for acute infections and UTIs, a low rate for chronic infections)

 

Antibiotic medicine buy online from an authentic platform that provides genuine medication with complete payment protection methods.

HOW DO THE ANTIBIOTICS WORK?

Antibiotics act by inhibiting crucial life-sustaining processes in the cell/ organism. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of cell wall materials like DNA, RNA, Ribosomes and proteins, etc. They can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic, i.e. they can either kill the bacteria or inhibit their multiplication.

 

DOSAGE RECOMMENDED:

Dosage varies with the drug, route of administration, pathogen, site of infection, and severity. Renal function, age of the patient, and other factors also impact the dosage. Consultation from the doctor is recommended. Most antibiotics start having an effect on an infection within a few hours.  It is important to remember to complete the whole course of the medication. Some antibiotics should not be consumed with certain foods and drinks, while others should not be taken with the food in your stomach; hence they should be taken at least an hour before or after the food intake. You can buy antibiotics online USA from Alldaychemist.com at reasonable prices. 

SIDE EFFECTS:

All antibiotics cause a risk of overgrowth by non-susceptible bacteria. The common side effects are:

  • Feeling and being sick
  • Diarrhea
  • Fungal infections of the mouth, digestive tract and vagina
  • Allergic reactions, especially from penicillin

Some rare side effects are:

  • Abnormal blood clotting 
  • Sensitivity to sun
  • Formation of kidney stones 

PRECAUTIONS:

  • While taking antibiotics, do not take any other OTC/herbal medicine without telling your doctor
  • If you are taking metronidazole, do not consume alcohol
  • Dairy products should not be consumed if you are taking tetracycline
  • Do not overuse the antibiotics
  • Consult your physician to buy antibiotics online.
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