Parkinson’s disease is also known by various other names such as idiopathic Parkinsonism, hypo kinetic rigid syndrome, paralysis agitans. It is the disease of brains that leads to shaking or tremor and difficulty in walking, movement and coordination. It is the disorder of nervous system.
Tremor and shaking are the most well known signs of Parkinson’s disease. Although Parkinson’s disease cannot be cured yet there are several medications that can be used to control the condition and the progress of disease.
Causes of Parkinson’s disease:
The cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown yet there are several factors that may play an important role in initiating the problem of Parkinson’s disease:
Certain research studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease can be caused due to certain types of mutations. There are a few chances of this disease to move in the family lineage.
• Environmental triggers:
According to few research programs, certain toxins and environmental factors increases the risks of Parkinson’s disease.
• The presence of lewvy bodies:
These are small clumps found in brain while suffering from Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease often develops after the age of 50. Sometimes it may occur in young people also. It affects both men and women. The nerve cells use a brain chemical called dopamine to help control muscle movement. Parkinson’s disease occurs when the nerve cells in brain that makes this dopamine are destroyed.
Signs and Symptoms:
This may affect one or both sides of the body, and can include:
• Slow blinking, shaking
• Problems with balance and walking
• No expression in the face
• Muscle pains
• Movement problems
• Anxiety, stress, and tension
• Memory loss
• Problems with unsteady balance and posture may make it hard to sit down in a chair, or to rise from one
• Walking is accomplished with small, shuffling steps and a stooped posture
• Stiffness or rigidity in the arms or legs and there is a slowing of body movements, called Bradykinesia
Adverse effects of the problem:
There are various complications that are associated with Parkinson’s disease. Here are the common problems that a patient with Parkinson’s disease is:
• Dementia and thinking difficulties
• Depression and emotional changes
• Difficulty in swallowing
• Disorders associated with sleep
• Stomach and bladder problems commonly linked with constipation and certain other bowel problems
• The person with Parkinson’s Disease may also face the following problems:
Difficulty in urination, loss of sexual interest, pain and smell dysfunction.
As the exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is a mystery, similarly the preventive techniques are also unknown. But many research studies have shown that having a caffeine rich drink like soda, coffee and tea is good to reduce the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
Common Parkinson’s disease medicines:
The following medicines are commonly prescribed for the patients with this disease. These below given drugs are available on several online pharmacies, so you can buy anti parkinsonian medicines online also.
• Syndopa CR
Myths and facts:
Myth: the PD only affects movements
Fact: although this disease affects motor ability, but there are many other difficulties that a Parkinson’s disease patient faces like pain, fatigue, sexual dysfunction etc.
Myth: doctor can predict the future of a Parkinson’s patient
Fact: it is not true as unlike from the other health issues, this disease is variable and there is no way to predict the health of the patient.
Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease:
Alone the symptoms can be difficult to assess, particularly in the elderly. They become clearer as the illness gets worse. A doctor's examination may show:
• Difficulty starting or finishing voluntary movements
• Jerky, stiff movements
• Muscle atrophy
• Shaking (tremors)
• Changes in your heart rate
Tests may be needed to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.
Treatment for Parkinson’s disease:
There is no known cure for this disease. The medicines used for the treatment have following targets:
• Boost the levels of dopamine in the brain
• Mimic the effects of dopamine
The goal of the treatment is to control the symptoms. People with PD should consider having surgery (deep brain stimulation surgery) before the disease takes too great a toll on their independence, employment, and self confidence. Younger people with unilateral symptoms are the best candidates for surgery, but there is no true age limit or lack of substantial benefit for older individuals.
Medications used to treat movement-related symptoms of Parkinson's disease include:
• Levodopa and Pramipexole: for movement
• Amantadine and Anticholinergics medications for tremors
• Memantine, Rivastigmine, Galantamine for cognitive difficulties
• Antidepressants for mood disorders
• Gabapentin, duloxetine for pain
• Fludrocortisone, midodrine, botox, sidenafil for autonomic dysfunction
• Armodafinil, clonazepam, zolpidem: for sleep disorders
These medicines are quite effective in controlling the progress of this disease and hence, you can easily buy these anti-Parkinson’s medications online from various reputed pharmacies on cheap prices.
When patients stop responding well enough to medications surgery is considered as the single solution. The options available are:
• Deep brain stimulation in which the electrodes are placed for brain mapping
• Precise destruction of targeted areas of the brain. These areas are destroyed as they are responsible for the most troubling symptoms.
Steps to improve the health:
• Providing good nutritional requirements, speech therapy, exercise and avoiding stress may prove to be beneficial for the patient with the disease
• Regular exercise and a balanced diet also may help to improve a patient's overall sense of well-being and body control
• Assistive devices, such as special eating utensils, wheelchairs, bed lifts, shower chairs, walkers, and wall bars
• A speech therapist may work with you to help you talk or swallow
• Do not drive unless your caregiver says it is okay
• It’s proven that with a diet containing fibre, flavonoids found in fruits and plants, pepper, protein and calcium can tremendously improve the condition of the patient
Important thing to know:
• This Parkinson’s disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson. He is the one who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817
• For further knowledge and help you can contact the National Parkinson Foundation or the American Parkinson Disease Association.
Anti-Parkinson's drugs are prescribed to a patient when they develop symptoms of Parkinson's disease or other conditions of parkinsonism. The major ant, Parkinson's agents are dopamine receptor agonists, levodopa, Amantadine, and the so-called COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, muscarinic receptor antagonists, MAO-B (monoamine oxidase B) inhibitors. Anti-Parkinson's drugs are a progressive movement disorder due to dopamine deficiency, a chemical in the brain that sends signals to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. Anti-Parkinson agents attempt to replace dopamine and treat the symptoms such as tremor hypokinesia.
One should only be prescribed Anti-Parkinson's drugs when they have developed symptoms of Parkinson's disease. These medicines may help you manage problems with movement, walking, and tremor. Most patients with Parkinson's disease can be adequately treated with medicines that alleviate their symptoms. The goal is to improve life's daily functioning and overall quality of life for as long as possible.
The risk involves:
- Antiparkinson drugs may reduce certain side effects of antipsychotics. Discuss with your doctor for more information.
- These medicines are known to have a stimulant effect. This is why some people may become addicted.
- When you stop treatment, you may need to reduce your dose under your doctor's supervision gradually; otherwise, your symptoms may reappear.
- If you wish to stop taking anti-Parkinson's disease and antipsychotics around the same time, your doctor may suggest discontinuing your antipsychotic treatment first and then stopping your Anti-parkinson medicine.
You should be especially careful about taking these medicines if you have a heart condition, liver problem, kidney disorder, and high blood pressure.
You should not take Antiparkinson's drugs if you:
® Have an enlarged prostate
® Are you showing signs of dyskinesia
® Have glaucoma
® A muscle disorder called myasthenia gravis
® Are you pregnant or breastfeeding
Every patient is different, and you may need to take Antiparkinson's drugs cautiously. Please discuss your situation with your doctor, and do not stop the medicine you are currently taking without consulting a doctor.
The side effects of major Anti Parkinson's agents are given below:
- Levodopa and carbidopa - These may cause dizziness, loss of appetite, dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, mouth and throat pain, change in the sense of taste, confusion, or forgetfulness.
- COMPT - common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, back pain, urine discoloration
- Muscarinic receptor antagonists - Adverse effects include agitation, hot and flushed skin, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia, dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, and delirium.
- MAO-B inhibitors - Side effects include nausea, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, insomnia, headache, dizziness, and lightheadedness
- Amantadine - With Amantadine, you may experience nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, decreased appetite, headache, abnormal dreams, difficulty falling or staying asleep
- Anticholinergics - Common ones are dry mouth, drowsiness, trouble urinating, hallucinations, memory problems, sedation, constipation, and blurry vision.
There are six main types of Antiparkinsonian medicines available to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease levodopa, inhibitors of enzymes that inactivate dopamine (monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor (MOA-B), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors, Amantadine, and anticholinergic drugs. All of these are effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Three main medicines commonly used for Parkinson's disease are levodopa, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase- B inhibitors.
- Levodopa - Levodopa is the commonly prescribed medication for Parkinson's. It controls the symptoms of the condition, particularly slow movements and stiff, rigid body parts.
- Dopamine agonists - These medications limit dopamine chemicals' actions in the brain when levels are low. These improve symptoms by fooling the brain into thinking the chemical is available.
- Monoamine-oxidase-B inhibitor - The drug class is the most effective in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. These drugs may also be used to manage symptoms.
Currently, there is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but there are treatments that help to slow or stop the progression of Parkinson's disease. Incorporating physical activity and eating a healthy diet are important for various health reasons. If you have specific dietary needs, talk to your doctor to see if supplementation can help. Medications that mimic the action of dopamine in your brain can also help to reduce associated symptoms.