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Infertility Therapy

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Infertility is the inability to conceive a child. A couple may be considered infertile if, after two years of regular sexual intercourse, without contraception, the woman has not become pregnant (and there is no other reason, such as breastfeeding or postpartum amenorrhea).

Infertility problems may result from an issue with either a male or female partner or sometimes a combination of factors that prevent pregnancy. Causes of infertility in males and females include endometriosis, ovulatory disorders, low sperm count, or low testosterone. Just as infertility causes an emotional burden on an individual, it also affects the relationship between the couple.

Treatment for male infertility and women fertility is different. Many infertility treatment options are available, including medicine for conception in females and male infertility medicines for males who face erection issues (erectile dysfunction drugs, penis oil for erection). These infertility medicines work best when used under the guidance of a doctor. Certain lifestyle changes can also help improve women's fertility. Read on to learn more about infertility, its affecting factors and treatments.

Infertility in male and female 

In the past, infertility was commonly considered a female problem. It is now recognized that a couple's infertility is just as likely to root problems in the male partner. About 40 % of infertility testing cases stem from female factors, and another 40 % from male factors. In 10 % of couples, infertility factors are found in men and women. In the remaining 10 %, infertility remains unexplained after testing. The statistical data clearly shows that infertility in men can also cause the failure of conception. 


General factors causing female and male infertility: 

DNA damage: reduces fertility in female eggs caused by smoking or radiation and fertility in male sperm caused by drugs or chemotherapy. Other factors causing infertility in women and men are given below:

  • Genetic factors
  • Hormonal factors
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Thyroid disorders
  • Environmental factors
  • Toxins include glues, volatile organic solvents or silicones, physical agents, chemical dust, and pesticides. Tobacco smokers are 60% more likely to be infertile than non-smokers.

Causes of male infertility:

  • Low semen quality
  • Testicular malformations
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Blockage of the man's duct system

Infertility causes in females:

  • Severe endometriosis
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Ovulation disorders
  • Elevated prolactin (hormone)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Early menopause
  • Benign uterine fibroids
  • Pelvic adhesions


Infertility treatment for females 

Doctors usually prescribe infertility medicine for females to help them get pregnant. These medications are often referred to as infertility drugs. These drugs function by causing your body to release hormones that trigger ovulation (the process of releasing an egg from the ovary). Even if you already use another method to improve your chance of getting pregnant, such as in-vitro fertilization, fertility drugs are still an important part of infertility therapy.

Female infertility treatment comprises many medicines that address various problems. The fertility drugs for infertility treatments are mentioned below:

Clomifene is a medicine used to help with fertility for many years. It is taken as a tablet. The infertility medication works by blocking a feedback mechanism to the pituitary gland. This results in the pituitary gland making and releasing more gonadotropin hormones than normal. The extra amount of gonadotropin hormones may stimulate the ovaries to ovulate.

Metformin may be offered to women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who have infertility but have not responded to clomifene. Metformin is a medicine commonly used to treat some people with diabetes. Some studies have suggested that metformin may help improve fertility problems in some women with PCOS, usually in addition to clomifene.

Medicines that contain gonadotropin are another type of treatment. These need to be injected. They are used when clomifene does not work or before IUI and IVF, to cause ovulation. Gonadotropin medicines may also improve men's fertility, with certain hormonal problems affecting sperm count.

Medicines that contain gonadotropin-releasing hormones are sometimes used. These stimulate the pituitary to release gonadotropin (which stimulates the ovaries).

Surgical treatments for infertility treatment are as follows:

  1. Ovarian drilling (surgical method of ovulation induction)
  2. Fallopian tube surgery
  3. Uterine surgery
  4. Surgery for endometriosis

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

  1. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
  2. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  3. Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) & Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
  4. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
  5. Donor insemination (sperm or egg donation)
  6. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening
  7. In Vitro Maturation (IVM)
  8. Factors affecting the outcome of ART
  9. Risks and adverse effects associated with ART
  10. Egg donation
  11. Embryo donation


  1. Other infertility treatments

Doctors suggest that supplements including zinc, selenium, and vitamin E may be helpful for men who have abnormal sperm counts due to an unknown cause.

Male infertility Treatment

Male infertility treatment includes general sexual problems or a lack of healthy sperm. Treatment may include:

  1. Medication or behavioral approaches: Addressing impotence or premature ejaculation with one or both approaches may improve fertility.
  2. Surgery, hormones, or assisted reproductive technology: If the lack of healthy sperm is suspected of causing a man's infertility, surgery or hormones to correct the problem or use assisted reproductive technology is sometimes very useful.
  3. Sperm retrieval: These techniques are used when ejaculation is a problem:
  • Surgical sperm aspiration, which allows retrieval of sperm if the ejaculatory duct is blocked.
  • Electric or vibratory stimulation to achieve ejaculation can help retrieve sperm in men with spinal cord injuries.

What are 3 treatments commonly used for infertility?

There are 3 main types of fertility treatment include:

Medicines, Surgical procedures and Invitro fertilization (IVF)

Which treatment is best for infertility?

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is considered the best procedure to achieve pregnancy through in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy and artificial insemination.

Is infertility treatment safe?

Infertility treatments are generally safe, and those who undergo them experience no health or pregnancy problems. However, certain risks are to be taken care of, including having multiple pregnancies and birth (twins, triplets, or more).

What is the first treatment for infertility?

Women may need several different types of treatment to attain pregnancy. Fertility medications are the main treatment for women with infertility issues caused due to ovulation disorders. These medications help to regulate or induce ovulation.

What are 4 causes of female fertility?

Issues with ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) are the most common causes of infertility in women. A woman's age, weight, hormonal imbalances, smoking, and exposure to chemicals or radiation affect fertility.

What are the symptoms of a woman being infertile?

Women's main symptom of infertility is the inability to get pregnant. Problems with the menstrual cycle; a menstrual cycle that is too long (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular or absent can mean that ovulation is not taking place.

How is female infertility treated?

Female fertility can be treated with fertility medications, surgical procedures, and assisted conception technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intrauterine insemination (IUI).    


What are 3 ways to prevent infertility?

The three ways to prevent fertility are as follows:

    –   Maintain normal weight

    –    Exercise: Stay physically active to maintain a healthy body.

    –    Don't smoke:

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