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Anti Emetic

Vomiting refers to emesis (medical terms), throwing up (informally), and numerous other terms like heave and puke. Vomiting is a violent act in which the stomach almost turns itself inside out - forcing itself into the lower portion of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) during a vomiting episode, expelling food and secretions.

Vomiting differs from regurgitation, whereas the other one refers to the expulsion of material from the mouth, pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood. Some species use regurgitation to feed their young one's example Blue-footed Booby and the honeybee.

Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of a disease or condition. The underlying cause of the illness is causing nausea. Getting relieved from nausea and vomiting is important to prevent dehydration. Dehydration can worsen nausea and vomiting. Medication is available to control symptoms.  


Causes of Emesis:

The main causes of vomiting are:

 • A headache: A headache due to a migraine is one of the common causes of vomiting

 • Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (morning sickness): Vomiting in pregnancy is especially common in the first trimester due to hormone level changes in the bloodstream. Morning sickness occurs in 50 to 80% of pregnant women. While the name would imply that this ailment only occurs in the morning, many women find it can strike at any time of the day.

 • Nausea and vomiting and bowel impediment: Abdominal pain, distention, nausea, and vomiting are symptoms of bowel obstruction. As the small intestine becomes blocked and don’t allow contents to pass through to the colon, it acts as a dam where food, fluid, and secretions back up, causing the symptoms of obstruction.

 • Drug interaction: there are various drugs for many diseases where vomiting and nausea are written as their common side effects:

       1.  Anti-cancer drugs used for chemotherapy

       2. Narcotic pain medications-

       3. Anti-inflammatory medications

 • Steroids

 • Increased pressure within the skull: Any illness, discomfort, or injury that increases the skull's pressure can cause vomiting in tumors and meningitis.

 • Diseases or illness: Many complaints associated with the abdominal organs can produce the symptoms of vomiting. These include:

       1.  Hepatitis

       2. Kidney problems

       3. Gallbladder disease

       4. Pancreatitis

       5. Some forms of cancer

 • Lethal stimulus: in many cases, certain smells or sounds may initiate the vomiting that originates in the brain. In other cases, certain sights, including any emotional shock or pain, may also initiate throwing up.

 • Illness related to heat: example, extreme sunburn, heat exhaustion, or dehydration.

 Diabetes: people with diabetes may develop vomiting and nausea due to the failure of the stomach to empty itself called gastroparesis.


Signs and Symptoms

Vomiting or Throwing Up is often accompanied by nausea, stomach cramps and abdominal cramps. The stomach cannot hold the things (food and secretions) in it and forcefully empties itself.

Adverse effects of the problem:

Excessive vomiting may cause electrolyte imbalances. It may also cause the erosion of the inner cell lining of the oesophagus. In severe cases of vomiting, such as in bulimia nervosa, vomiting may lead to the destruction of tooth enamel due to the acidity of the vomit.

Preventive measures:

The following tips will help you to prevent yourself from throwing up:

 • Avoid being in places with strong odours and bad smell

 • if your feel like vomiting, place a cool cloth on your face or sit in front of a fan

 • divert your mind to something else, like watch TV or listen to music

 • Avoid eating anything if you feel bloated or have a severe stomach-ache, rather take a nap to rest your body

Myths and Facts:

 • Myth: vomiting causes dehydration

 • Fact: it is not true as the patient vomits only the stomach contents, i.e. food and stomach secretions. Vomit does not contain any body fluids. Hence, the person is not left dehydrated after vomiting.

 • Myth: vomiting means you have a serious illness

 • Fact: all vomiting can’t be caused due to some serious illness. Usually, it is due to food poisoning or some stomach virus. Except if you vomit blood or bile (green coloured fluid), you need not worry. In any case, if you feel unwell, visit your doctor immediately.

Diagnosis of Emesis:

One should always consider taking the help of a physician if he /she feel the extreme prominence of the situation and frequent throwing up. A doctor carries out a physical examination and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the situation. The vomiting may be due to many causes, as explained before, due to a disease or infection.

Treatment for Emesis:

Nausea and vomiting can be treated simultaneously with the search for the causative agent of the situation. Ideally, these symptoms should resolve when the underlying illness is treated and controlled. The situation often worsens when the patient becomes dehydrated as nausea makes it difficult to drink fluid, making the dehydration worse increasing nausea. Intravenous fluids may be provided to correct this issue and break the cycle.

A variety of anti-emetic (anti-nausea medications) may be prescribed, which can be administered differently depending upon the patient's ability to take them. Medications are available by pill, liquid, or tablets that dissolve on or under the tongue, intravenous or intramuscular injection, or rectal suppository.

Common anti-emetics are:

 • Vomistop- Vomistop containing Domperidone is an oral treatment of indigestion, nausea, and vomiting. It increases food movement throughout the stomach and intestines, providing gastric discomfort. Taking Vomistop half an hour before each meal in the dose and duration advised by your doctor will help relieve bloating, fullness, and other associated symptoms. The dose usually depends on how a patient responds to the treatment.

 • Emeset- It is an anti-emetic drug-containing Ondansetron that is commonly used to control nausea and vomiting due to certain health issues like an upset stomach. It is useful in preventing nausea and vomiting caused due to any cancer drug therapy, surgery, and radiotherapy. Ondansetron can be used as a monotherapy or in combination with other medicines and can be taken with or without food. Doctors will usually suggest the appropriate dose depending on what you are taking it for. However, this medicine is ineffective in relieving other side effects of cancer treatments. You can buy anti-emetic drugs online from various online pharmacies at discounted rates.

The dosage of anti-emetics prescribed by the doctor may vary according to the severity of the situation and the causal reason behind emesis. Buy these and many other anti-emetic medicines online from various pharmacies and that too at cheap rates.

Steps to improve the health:

Some home remedies for nausea or vomiting:

In many cases, some home remedies may prove very helpful, as, in the case of extreme emergency, it is important to rest the stomach and avoid dehydration. Clear fluids should be given for the first 24 hours of the illness, and then the diet should be advanced as tolerance increases. Clear fluids are easy for the stomach to absorb, and they include:

 • Wate

 • Sports drink

 • Clear broths

The important thing to know:

It is important not to take too much fluid at one time since stretching the stomach may cause nausea to worsen. Fluid should be taken every 10-15 minutes. In infants and children, the amount may be as little as 5 or 10 cc's or less than a third of an ounce at a time.

Milk and milk products should be avoided for the first 2 days during an episode of nausea and vomiting as the enzyme (lactase) that helps digest the milk is located in cells lining the stomach and intestine. With vomiting, the body can become lactose intolerant relatively. Abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea may even occur.

Is it safe to take antiemetics when pregnant?

Yes, some antiemetics are safe for pregnant women when used under the supervision of a doctor. Antiemetic drugs can help relieve morning sickness in pregnant women. More information about antiemetic drugs is necessary before they can be safely used during pregnancy. If you are pregnant, be sure to use antiemetics under the guidance of a doctor.

Which antiemetic is most commonly available in USA/UK/Australia?

Emeset 4 mg, Emeset 8 mg, and Vomistop 10 mg are commonly available in USA/UK/Australia. Moreover, according to studies, antiemetics such as ondansetron, tropisetron, granisetron, droperidol, dexamethasone, and cyclizine are effective for treating postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Why does propofol have an antiemetic effect?

Propofol is known to have antiemetic properties. It is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, the mechanism of action is still not well understood. Clinical experts evaluate its interaction with the dopaminergic and the serotoninergic systems. Researchers found that the medicine restricted the movement of syntaxin 1A, the key protein needed at the synapses of all neurons. This lowers communication between neurons.

When to take antiemetic?

Antiemetic drugs can help people live without nausea and vomiting, but they can also cause adverse effects and interactions, some of which can be life-threatening. Discussing with a health care specialist before trying any antiemetic drug is especially important. Especially those who take a sleep aid or muscle relaxant should consult a health care professional before using an antihistamine to prevent nausea and vomiting. Different antiemetics have different treatment regimens. In addition, a treatment regimen depends on the type of severity of the problem.

How do antiemetics work?

Antiemetics are the medications that block the action of these neurotransmitters, which prevents the signals of nausea from reaching the brain and helps control nausea and vomiting. They cause stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract, diaphragm, and abdominal pain. These mediations produce a calming effect on the brain that may cause slight drowsiness.

What is the best antiemetic in dilatation and curettage?

Postoperative nausea and vomiting generally occur in women undergoing dilation and curettage for pregnancy termination. Although all antiemetic medicines decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, the combination of droperidol and dexamethasone is the most effective in preventing this condition. However, there is a need to analyze the risks and benefits associated with different treatments. Consult your doctor about the best antiemetic used in dilation and curettage.

Can injection antiemetics be given during pregnancy?

Studies found that metoclopramide used in pregnant women was not associated with an increased risk of serious side effects, including fetal death. Metoclopramide is an antiemetic injection that relieves nausea and vomiting in various conditions. If you are pregnant, let your doctor know; your doctor will need to assess the risks and benefits associated with the use of antiemetic injection.

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