According to data, around 60 to 70 million people in America suffer annually from various types of gastrointestinal diseases, which is the underlying cause of around 10% of death in the USA. The term gastrointestinal diseases (GI) cover a broad range of diseases, which can be either acute or chronic. Dyspepsia (a persistent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen) is an acute condition that affects the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is expressed by symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, vomiting, bloating, and stomach discomfort.
Treatment of dyspepsia involves a variety of medications depending on the symptoms and the possible causative factors. Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Although there is no cure for the disease, there are several options to provide symptomatic relief and prevent relapses. These two examples show that a wide range of medications with different mechanisms of action is required to address various GI disorders.
Gastrointestinal medicines include a range of different classes of drugs that are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Gastrointestinal symptoms can be relatively minor and short-lived and are easily treated with over-the-counter medicines. Problems like indigestion and acid reflux can be treated with antacids or medicines such as ranitidine and omeprazole. Symptoms of irritable bowel disease can be relieved by using mebeverine or hyoscine. Discuss with your doctor for advice about the most suitable medicines. If any gastrointestinal issue persists or becomes worrisome, fix an appointment to see a health care specialist. More severe conditions like Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis, need prescription gastrointestinal medicines such as mesalamine, prednisolone, etc.
Medicines for Gastrointestinal Diseases
Check out here the common gastrointestinal medicines. You can buy medicines online at affordable rates.
Gastrointestinal disease treatment includes prescription and non-prescription medicines. These gastric medicines can be classified based on their use, such as drugs for nausea and vomiting, laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, irritable bowel syndrome, acid peptic disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and drugs for irritable bowel syndrome, etc. Medicines used for gastrointestinal issues rarely cause liver injury.
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Antidiarrheal Agents Include Bulk-forming Agents, Bile Acid Resins, Bismuth, Inhibitors Of Intestinal Motility, Hygroscopic Agents, Non-absorbed Antibiotics, And Hormones.
Bulk-forming agents include methylcellulose
- Hydroscopic agents include pectin and kaolin
- Bile acid resins are colestipol, cholestyramine, and colesevelam
- Inhibitors of intestinal motility include opioids such as loperamide and diphenoxylate
- Antibiotics include rifaximin and rifamycin, which are used for traveler’s diarrhoea
- Hormones with antidiarrheal activity include octreotide and somatostatin
Most antidiarrheal agents are active in the small intestine and colon and are not absorbed. Antiemetics are a group of medications that acts in a different pathway that regulates nausea and vomiting. These include anticholinergic agents, antihistamines, serotonin type 3 receptor blockers, phenothiazines, cannabinoid receptor agonists, and centrally acting benzamides.
Acid peptic disease or antiulcer agents include:
- proton pump inhibitors- Famotidine, ranitidine, cimetidine, nizatidine
- histamine type 2 receptor blocker- esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole, Dexlansoprazole.
Laxatives or agents for constipation include bulk-forming agents, stool wetting agents, osmotic agents, nonspecific stimulants, prokinetic agents, and agents that increase fluid secretion. Many of these treatment options are considered particularly hepatotoxic. Naloxegol and naldemedine are opioid antagonists used to treat constipation associated with opioid use.
Inflammatory bowel disease includes several disorders, most commonly Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis. Medications can be classified as immunosuppressive drugs, 5-aminosalicylic acid-based agents, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and others.
- 5-amino acid derivatives-Mesalamine, balsalazide, sulfasalazine, olsalazine
- Immunosuppressive agents- methotrexate, azathioprine, mercaptopurine
- Tumor necrosis factor antagonists- certolozumab, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab
- Others- vedolizumab, natalizumab, metronidazole
Irritable bowel syndrome is a common disease with diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain, and bloating. Treatments with antidiarrheal agents, medicines for constipation, prokinetic agents, analgesics, pr antispasmodics are often used. Drugs specifically formulated for irritable bowel syndrome affect specific gastrointestinal receptors or hormones. These include alosetron, plecanatide, linaclotide, lubiprostone, and tegaserod. None of these medications, however, is particularly hepatotoxic. Eluxadoline is also a treatment option for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Plecanatide and linaclotide are guanylate cyclase X receptor antagonists and are effective in treating chronic idiopathic constipation or constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Tegaserod, prucalopride, and cisapride belong to a drug class of serotonin type 4 receptor agonists that are effective in treating chronic idiopathic constipation.
Frequently, patients with stomach disorders are prescribed several drugs concomitantly. Drug interactions are common during the treatment and can sometimes contribute to the failure of treatment or can cause serious side effects. In addition to potential interactions with prescription medicines, one must also consider the possibility of interactions with over-the-counter medications (OTC).